3C: n, m, j, And y

The Remaining Single Letters

There are four more consonant sounds that we typically express with just a single letter. The 'n', 'm', and 'j' sounds, and the consonant form of 'y'. The 'y' sound is only found at the start of a given word or syllable. If it appears later on, it's expressed as a vowel. For that reason, its Plover chord is only on the left side of the keyboard.

On the left side of the keyboard:

  • TPH-: This is used for the 'n' sound.
  • PH-: This is used for the 'm' sound.
  • SKWR-: This is used for the 'j' sound.
  • KWR-: This is used for the 'y' sound.

On the right side of the keyboard:

  • -PB: This is used for the 'n' sound.
  • -PL: This is used for two related sounds:
    • the 'm' sound.
    • the 'lm' sound as in 'realm', 'palm', and 'calm'.
  • -PBLG: This is used for the 'j' sound.

Depending on which side of the word a sound falls, you would chord it using one or the other of the above forms. For example, 'man' is chorded PHAPB; 'hedge' is chorded HEPBLG; and 'joy' is chorded SKWROEU.

Exercise: The Remaining Single Letters

Try chording the following words:
  • 'nag' 'nap' 'nab' 'nut' 'never' 'nestle' 'nod' 'nest' 'nerd'
  • 'pent' 'parent' 'went' 'earns' 'rant' 'hunt' 'hand' 'panel' 'stun'
  • 'must' 'muffle' 'maggot' 'mallet' 'smuggle' 'morals'
  • 'arm' 'rum' 'harm' 'tempt' 'term'
  • 'calmed' 'palm' 'qualms'
  • 'jut' 'jug' 'just' 'jest' 'jets' 'job' 'jostle' 'jazz' 'jagged'
  • 'urge' 'edge' 'average' 'purge' 'trudge' 'storage'
  • 'yard' 'yet' 'yurt'

Exercise: Including Sounds From Previous Lessons

These words may be a bit more difficult. They include all the sounds learned so far:

  • 'noun' 'inhibit' 'nudge' 'notes' 'knack' 'enacts' 'neck' 'known' 'knock' 'gnome' 'noise' 'novice' 'named' 'neural' 'snide' 'announce'
  • 'loin' 'donor' 'winner' 'dinner' 'learned' 'lend' 'allowance' 'flaunt' 'deference' 'different' 'dance' 'diner' 'demand' 'grunt' 'grant' 'gleans' 'severance' 'cement' 'design'
  • 'mound' 'mourn' 'maim' 'matter' 'commit' 'commend' 'smudge' 'smuggle' 'semester'
  • 'forms' 'primed' 'serum' 'time' 'hermit' 'maim' 'plumb' 'dream' 'gym' 'germ' 'jam' 'blame' 'bottom' 'grammar'
  • 'balm' 'psalm'
  • 'judge' 'journal' 'join' 'joyful' 'jam' 'genders'
  • 'forge' 'budgets' 'average' 'leverage' 'merge' 'beige' 'carriage' 'fidget' 'frigid' 'digit' 'gadget' 'garage' 'grudge' 'turgid'
  • 'year' 'yearn' 'yolk'

Exercise Solutions

Solution: The Remaining Single Letters

  • 'nag': TPHAG
  • 'nap': TPHAP
  • 'nab': TPHAB
  • 'nut': TPHUT
  • 'nub': TPHUB
  • 'never': TPHEFR
  • 'nestle': TPHEFL
  • 'nod': TPHOD
  • 'nest': TPHEFT
  • 'nerd': TPHERD
  • 'pent': PEPBT
  • 'parent': PARPBT
  • 'went': WEPBT
  • 'earns': ERPBS
  • 'rant': RAPBT
  • 'hunt': HUPBT
  • 'hand': HAPBD
  • 'panel': PAPBL
  • 'stun': STUPB
  • 'must': PHUFT
  • 'muffle': PHUFL
  • 'maggot': PHAGT
  • 'mallet': PHALT
  • 'smuggle': SPHULG
  • 'morals': PHORLS
  • 'arm': ARPL
  • 'rum': RUPL
  • 'harm': HARPL
  • 'tempt': TEPLT
  • 'term': TERPL
  • 'calmed': KAPLD
  • 'palm': PAPL
  • 'qualms': KWAPLS
  • 'jut': SKWRUT
  • 'jug': SKWRUG
  • 'just': SKWRUFT
  • 'jest': SKWREFT
  • 'jets': SKWRETS
  • 'job': SKWROB
  • 'jostle': SKWROFL
  • 'jazz': SKWRAZ
  • 'jagged': SKWRAGD


  • 'urge': URPBLG
  • 'edge': EPBLG
  • 'average': AFRPBLG
  • 'purge': PURPBLG
  • 'porridge': PORPBLG
  • 'trudge': TRUPBLG
  • 'storage': STORPBLG


  • 'yard': KWRARD
  • 'yet': KWRET
  • 'yurt': KWRURT

Solution: Including Sounds From Previous Lessons

  • 'noun': TPHOUPB
  • 'inhibit': TPHEUBT
  • 'nudge': TPHUPBLG
  • 'notes': TPHOETS
  • 'knack': TPHABG
  • 'enacts': TPHABGTS
  • 'neck': TPHEBG
  • 'known': TPHOEPB
  • 'knock': TPHOBG
  • 'gnome': TPHOEPL
  • 'noise': TPHOEUS
  • 'novice': TPHOFS
  • 'named': TPHAEUPLD
  • 'neural': TPHAOURL
  • 'snide': STPHAOEUD
  • 'announce': TPHOUPBS
  • 'loin': HROEUPB
  • 'donor': TKOERPB
  • 'winner': WEURPB
  • 'dinner': TKEURPB
  • 'learned': HRERPBD
  • 'lend': HREPBD
  • 'allowance': HROUPBS
  • 'flaunt': TPHRAUPBT
  • 'deference': TKEFRPBS
  • 'different': TKEUFRPBT
  • 'dance': TKAPBS
  • 'diner': TKAOEURPB
  • 'demand': TKPHAPBD
  • 'grunt': TKPWRUPBT
  • 'grant': TKPWRAPBT
  • 'gleans': TKPWHRAOEPBS
  • 'severance': SEFRPBS
  • 'cement': SPHEPBT
  • 'design': STKAOEUPB
  • 'mound': PHOUPBD
  • 'mourn': PHOURPB
  • 'maim': PHAEUPL
  • 'matter': PHAEURT
  • 'commit': KPHEUT
  • 'commend': KPHEPBD
  • 'smudge': SPHUPBLG
  • 'smuggle': SPHULG
  • 'semester': SPHEFRT
  • 'forms': TPORPLS
  • 'primed': PRAOEUPLD
  • 'rhymes': RAOEUPLS
  • 'serum': SAOERPL
  • 'time': TAOEUPL
  • 'hermit': HERPLT
  • 'maim': PHAEUPL
  • 'plumb': PHRUPL
  • 'dream': TKRAOEPL
  • 'gym'; SKWREUPL
  • 'germ': SKWRERPL
  • 'jam': SKWRAPL
  • 'blame': PWHRAEUPL
  • 'bottom': PWOPLT
  • 'grammar': TKPWRARPL
  • 'balm': PWAUPL
  • 'psalm': SAUPL
  • 'judge': SKWRUPBLG
  • 'journal': SKWRURPBL
  • 'join': SKWROEUPB
  • 'joyful': SKWROEUFL
  • 'jam': SKWRAPL
  • 'genders': SKWRERPBDZ


  • 'forge': TPORPBLG
  • 'budgets': PWUPBLGTS
  • 'average': AFRPBLG
  • 'leverage': HREFRPBLG
  • 'merge': PHERPBLG
  • 'beige': PWAEUPBLG
  • 'carriage': KAEURPBLG
  • 'fidget': TPEUPBLGT
  • 'frigid': TPREUPBLGD
  • 'digit': TKEUPBLGT
  • 'gadget': TKPWAPBLGT
  • 'garage': TKPWRAPBLG
  • 'grudge': TKPWRUPBLG
  • 'turgid': TURPBLGD


  • 'year': KWRAOER
  • 'yearn': KWRERPB
  • 'yolk': KWROEBG