3B: k, d, f, l, g, b, z, and v

The Missing Keys

Some keys, like S, T, and P, are found on both sides of the keyboard. But keys like K, D, and F are only found on one side. The current lesson evens up this state of affairs, and relies on an idea you've already encountered in Lesson 3A: Vowels - that of assigning a particular sound to a set of keys.

On the left side of the keyboard:

  • TK-: this is used for the 'd' sound
  • TP-: this is used for the 'f' sound
  • HR-: this is used for the 'l' sound
  • TKPW-: this is used for the hard 'g' sound, as in 'gulp' and 'gulf'
  • PW-: this is used for the 'b' sound
  • S*-: this is used for the 'z' sound
  • SR-: this is used for the 'v' sound

On the right side of the keyboard:

  • -BG: this is used for the 'k' sound

Note that there are no 'h' or 'w' sounds represented on the right side of the keyboard, even though there are keys for those sounds on the left. This is because English doesn't really have any 'h' or 'w' sounds at the end of syllables. Even words that seem to have a 'w' sound at the end, like 'how', can be expressed easily with just a vowel, as in HOU.

Note that the 'd', 'g', 'b', and 'l' sounds each use single fingers to press two keys:

Using a single finger to press two vertical keys is standard in Plover and in all steno systems. Never press two horizontal keys with the same finger, except for the right index finger pressing *F, *R or *FR, or the right little finger pressing TD or SZ. Or the thumbs pressing vowel keys.

Now you can type all of these sounds on both sides of the keyboard. For example, 'kiss' is stroked as KEUS, while 'sick' is stroked as SEUBG. And 'fed' is stroked as TPED, while 'deaf' is stroked as TKEF. Note that even though they use sounds represented by multiple keys, these words still fit perfectly in steno order:


Exercise: The Missing Keys

  • 'due' 'duffer' 'deferral' 'devil' 'double' 'drug' 'depress' 'desire' 'dessert' 'destroyed'
  • 'feral' 'ford' 'for' 'phrase' 'fierce' 'fable' 'feeble' 'sphere' 'fries'
  • 'leader' 'lace' 'letter' 'lust' 'lovers'
  • 'glad' 'glare' 'glides' 'give' 'get' 'group' 'guest' 'guide' 'gravel' 'cigarette' 'goblet'
  • 'bored' 'board' 'bruise' 'buyer' 'bobble' 'brutal'
  • 'zest' 'zap' 'zag'
  • 'vile' 'vase' 'virus'
  • 'eke' 'rockets' 'correct' 'quake' 'task'

Exercise Solutions

Solution: The Missing Keys

  • 'due': TKAOU
  • 'duffer': TKUFR
  • 'deferral': TKEFRL
  • 'devil': TKEFL
  • 'double': TKUBL
  • 'debt': TKET
  • 'dabble': TKABL
  • 'drug': TKRUG
  • 'depress': TKPRES
  • 'desire': STKAOEUR
  • 'dessert': STKERT
  • 'destroyed': STKROEUD
  • 'feral': TPERL
  • 'ford': TPORD
  • 'for': TPOR
  • 'phrase': TPRAEUZ
  • 'fierce': TPAOERS
  • 'fable': TPAEUBL
  • 'feeble': TPAOEBL
  • 'sphere': STPAOER
  • 'fries': TPRAOEUS
  • 'leader': HRAOERD
  • 'lace': HRAEUS
  • 'letter': HRERT
  • 'lust': HRUFT
  • 'lovers': HROFRS
  • 'leaders': HRAOERDZ
  • 'glad': TKPWHRAD
  • 'glare': TKPWHRAEUR
  • 'glides': TKPWHRAOEUDZ
  • 'give': TKPWEUF
  • 'get': TKPWET
  • 'group': TKPWRAOUP
  • 'guest': TKPWEFT
  • 'guide': TKPWAOEUD
  • 'gravel': TKPWRAFL
  • 'cigarette': STKPWRET
  • 'goblet': TKPWOBLT
  • 'bored': PWORD
  • 'board': PWAORD
  • 'bruise': PWRAOUZ
  • 'buyer': PWAOEUR
  • 'bobble': PWOBL
  • 'brutal': PWRAOULT
  • 'zest': S*EFT
  • 'zap': SA*P
  • 'zag': SA*G
  • 'vile': SRAOEUL
  • 'vase': SRAEUS
  • 'virus': SRAOEURS
  • 'eke': AOEBG
  • 'rockets': ROBGTS
  • 'correct': KREBGT
  • 'quake': KWAEUBG
  • 'task': TAFBG